Here’s what you should know about how to identify irregular periods, what causes them and when to see a doctor.
What Are Irregular Periods, Anyway?During a normal menstrual cycle, an egg is released from one of your ovaries during ovulation. If the egg is not fertilized by a sperm, then changing hormone levels signal for your body to shed the blood and tissues that line your uterus, says the Office on Women’s Health (OWH).
This bleeding typically lasts about five days. Then, the monthly cycle repeats itself.
But some women have what is called abnormal uterine bleeding—another term for irregular periods, the OWH explains.
What is abnormal uterine bleeding?
- Bleeding or spotting between periods
- Bleeding after sexual intercourse
- Heavy bleeding during your period
- Menstrual bleeding that lasts longer than normal
- Bleeding after you’ve reached menopause
What Causes Irregular Periods?There are a number of reasons why a woman has irregular periods, says the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD).
When a girl first starts menstruating, it may take some time time before her periods become regular. And periods may stop becoming regular up to eight years before menopause.
Common causes of irregular periods include:
Uncontrolled diabetes—Women with unmanaged diabetes may have irregular periods because the interaction between blood sugar levels and hormones can disrupt a woman’s menstrual cycle, says the American Diabetes Association.
Eating disorders—Women with conditions like anorexia or bulimia may have irregular or missed periods because their bodies are not producing and circulating enough hormones to control the menstrual cycle, according to the Hormone Health Network.
Hyperprolactinemia—Women who have too much of a protein hormone called prolactin in their blood can have irregular periods.
Medications—Certain medications, including anti-epileptics and antipsychotics—can cause irregular periods.
Polycystic ovary syndrome—PCOS is caused by imbalanced sex hormones, which can disrupt regular menstruation.
Premature ovarian failure—The ovaries of women with POF stop working before the age of 40, says the National Institutes of Health. Some women with this condition continue to have periods occasionally, however.
When Should You See A Doctor For Irregular Periods?It may be time to talk to your doctor if:
- You haven’t had a period for 90 days
- Your period suddenly becomes irregular
- You have a period more often than every 21 days
- You have a period less often than every 35 days
- Your period lasts for more than a week
- Your period becomes unusually heavy
- You bleed between periods
- Your periods are extremely painful
A gynecologist will be able to determine the cause of your irregular periods and help you figure out a treatment course. This may include oral contraceptives to regulate your cycle.